XDVDFS

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XDVDFS (Also known as XISO) is the image format used for Xbox Game Discs. It is stored in the data area.

Format

Each sector is 2048 bytes.

Filesystem

[FIXME]

Volume descriptor

32 sectors which are zero-filled. The Volume descriptor is 4096 bytes, but split into 2x 2048 sections.

  • Section 1: The first data is the magic at sector 32. It is always "MICROSOFT*XBOX*MEDIA". [FIXME]
  • Section 2: The first data is the magic at sector 32. It is always "MICROSOFT*XBOX*MEDIA". [FIXME]

Examples

[FIXME] [FIXME] [FIXME]

Wave 1

Developers used xblayout to create DVD layout. Then generated the final image using xbpremaster. The final image was submitted to Microsoft.

  • Azurik: Rise of Perathia (NTSC)
    • xblayout version: 1.0.3926.1
    • xbpremaster version: 1.0.3926.1
  • Genma Onimusha (PAL)
    • xblayout version: 1.0.4039.1
    • xbpremaster version: 1.0.4039.2
  • Max Payne (PAL)
    • xblayout version: 1.0.4134.1
    • xbpremaster version: 1.0.4242.1
  • Petit Copter (Japanese)
    • xblayout version: 1.0.4361.1
    • xbpremaster version: 1.0.4361.2
  • 007 - Agent Under Fire (PAL)
    • xblayout version: 1.0.4432.1
    • xbpremaster version: 1.0.4432.1
Wave 2

[FIXME]. Developers used a new version of xblayout and submitted the layout + content to Microsoft Microsoft generated the final image.

Wave 3

[FIXME]. Same as wave 2, but Microsoft upgraded their tool to use new random padding.

Wave 4

[FIXME]. Same as wave 3, but developers now had to use the xbgamedisc tool instead of xblayout. The mastering tool used by microsoft also leaves a version identifier now.

Directory Entry

Version 4361

File entry flags:

  • READONLY = 0x01
  • HIDDEN = 0x02
  • SYSTEM = 0x04
  • DIRECTORY = 0x10
  • ARCHIVE = 0x20
  • NORMAL = 0x80

File data blocks

Version 4361

Incomplete sectors are padded with 0x00 bytes.

Random blocks

Version 3926 - 4721

Seeded and then starting to emit bytes in data area. Filled with the following algorithm:

// State
uint32_t a;
uint32_t b;
uint32_t c;

// Helper
static uint32_t Value(void) {
  uint64_t result;
  result = c;
  result += 1;
  result *= b;
  result %= 0xFFFFFFFB;
  c = result & 0xFFFFFFFF;
  return c ^ a;
}

// buffer must be at even address, length must be multiple of 2
void Fill(uint16_t* buffer, size_t length) {
  while(length >= 2) {
    *buffer++ = Value() >> 8;
    length -= 2;
  }
}

void Seed() {
  const uint32_t b_seeds[8] = {
    0x52F690D5,
    0x534D7DDE,
    0x5B71A70F,
    0x66793320,
    0x9B7E5ED5,
    0xA465265E,
    0xA53F1D11,
    0xB154430F
  };

  FILETIME ft;
  GetSystemTimeAsFileTime(&ft);
  uint32_t seed = ft.dwLowDateTime ^ ft.dwHighDateTime;
  a = 0;
  b = b_seeds[seed & 7];
  c = seed;
  a = Value();
}

The RNG is seeded when the mastering tool / wizard is started. The first portion of the code to use this random number generator is the code which generates layer 0 and layer 1.

Version 4831 - 5849

The algorithm was switched to RC4-256-drop-2048.


#include <openssl/rc4.h>

RC4_KEY rc4key;

void Fill(uint8_t* buffer, size_t length) {
  // We need a zero buffer as OpenSSL will want to XOR the keystream with data.
  // The XDVDFS random data is the keystream without changes, so we let XOR OpenSSL XOR with 0x00 bytes.
  uint8_t zero_buffer[length];
  memset(zero_buffer, 0x00, length);
  RC4(&rc4key, length, zero_buffer, buffer);
}

void Seed() {
  union {
    uint8_t raw[16];
    struct {
      struct _FILETIME SystemTimeAsFileTime; // first 8 bytes, little-endian
      uint64_t tsc; // later 8 bytes, little-endian
    };
  } key;

  // Initialize seed
  key.tsc = rdtsc();
  GetSystemTimeAsFileTime(&key.SystemTimeAsFileTime);
  RC4_set_key(&rc4key, 16, &key);

  // Drop the first 2048 bytes of the RC4 keystream
  uint8_t discard_buffer[2048];
  Fill(discard_buffer, 2048);
}

The RNG is seeded when the mastering tool / wizard is started. The first portion of the code to use this random number generator is the code which generates layer 0 and layer 1.

Security blocks

Version 4361

Treated like random block.

Tools